Saffron is a herbal spice which has many properties, such as medicine and food color. Iran is the largest Saffron producer in the world. The flower is a small, perennial herb, at a height of 10 to 30 centimeters. Saffron is planted mostly in the central and eastern regions of Iran, and the best type is from Khorasan province.
The history of Saffron planting in Iran (especially in Gha-enat (Qaen County)) dates back more than 3000 years ago. This colorful and precious herb, have onion. And because it comes from the desert, it is known as red gold, or the gold of the desert.
To obtain a kilogram of dry flower, 110,000 to 170,000, fresh flowers are needed. Also, a worker should work 40 hours, to gather 150/000 flowers. Iran, with an average production of 90 to 93 percent of the total world production of this product (between 200 and 300 tons per year), has the highest rank in this field.
Spain with an average production of 25 tonnes, and India, Russia, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan, China, France, Italy, Germany, Australia, and Greece, with a mean production of 25 tonnes, are collectively assigned the third place.
This plant needs water only twice a year – the first of November (before it is produced) and early December (at the end of production). And by the spring, rain and snow are enough for it.
Saffron has many properties for health. Some of the most important properties and the benefits of saffron are the ability to improve breathing health, optimize digestive system, relieve pain, improve sleep patterns, reduce bleeding, strengthen heart health, increase blood circulation, prevent diabetes, strengthen bones and Improved immune function.
Saffron contains over 150 different combinations, including carotenoids, safranal, crocin, antioxidants, and other biochemicals. There are also minerals and vitamins essential for human health.