History of Iran before the Aryans
In the ancient Iran era, various tribes lived in various parts of Iran’s plateau, before the Aryans.
- The civilizations of the Burned City in Sistan.
- The Elam civilization in northern Khuzestan.
- The civilization of Jiroft in Kerman.
- The civilization of the inhabitants of the Sialk Hill in Kashan.
- The Urartu civilization in Azerbaijan. the Gyan Hill in Nahavand.
- The Kasi civilization in Kermanshah, and Lorestan
- and the Tupur in Tabarestan Mazandaran.
In 2700 BC, the first Elamite monarch in Shush (southwestern Iran) was formed. The state of Elam was the greatest civilization in Iran’s history. Elamites called their country “Haltamti” as “the land of God” Their territory was in the southwest of Iran and the capital of Elam was Susa (Shush). The city of Susa was also a wealthy and magnificent city.
Also, Elam was one of the biggest forces in the region during the history of that time. Therefore the language of Elamite was one of the three languages, that used at that time. In 639 BC Ashurbanipal, the king of Assyria, defeated Elam and plundered Susa. After this war, Elam never appeared as an independent power. From the beginning of the Elam period to the end of the Elamite era, the Elamites lived and governed about 2661 years in the southwest of Iran.
Immigration of the Aryans to Iran
Ariya means noble. The Aryans were Indian-European peoples who lived in the north of the Iranian plateau and Europe. Seems like, the main reason for their migration is not clear. But it seems that the main reason was the difficult weather conditions and the lack of pastures. The migration of the Aryans to the Iranian plateau began at the end of the Neolithic period (7,000 BC) and lasted until 4,000 BC.
Also, the Aryans of India and Iran stayed together for a long time. For this reason that they have common legends, social organization and also common words. Aryans were divided into different clans after entering Iran. The most important of them are the Medes and Parthians and Persians. The name of Iran is taken from the name of Aryans and it means the Aryan land.
Medes about 708 to 550 BC
The Medes were Iranian people of Aryan origin. They resided in the western part of Iran. The capital city of them was Hagmataneh (Hamedan). They established the first Iranian history government in the early 7th century BC.
In the time of “Cyaxares” (Hovakhshatra), the Median kingdom dominated the largest kingdom of West Asia, which, as it appears on the map of the land of Medes, brought the whole of Iran under the flag for the first time in history. He was the founder of the first Iranian power. Establishing the state of Medes as the first government based on the unity of the various ethnic groups living on the Iranian plateau, with commonalities and cultural ties, should be considered as the most important event in Iranian history.
At last the Medes state destroyed by Cyrus in 550 BC, and the Iranian monarchy transferred to the Persians.
The Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BC, “220 Years”) was an ancient empire founded by Cyrus the Great. Above all, it was the first state, that included the entire civilized world of those days. And even more the Achaemenid Empire was the first and only state that ruled the entire world, for more than three centuries. The kings of this kingdom were from the Persians.
Achaemenid’s area was very wide. It was extending from the Sind Valley in India to the Nile in Egypt and the Benghazi area in Libya today. And from the Danube River in Europe to Central Asia. The Achaemenid Empire fell to Alexander the Macedonian. The great Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, recorded as the World’s largest and first empire in the world in the UNESCO.
After the Achaemenids
After the Achaemenids, Seleucids and Parthians and Sasanians ruled Iran. The Sassanids or Sasanians was the Persian Empire in the years 224 to 651 AD. The Sassanid period is one of the most important, and the most effective periods in Iran’s history. The Sassanid Empire was the last Iranian royal family before Arabs attack to Iran.
In the Sassanid period, Iranian civilization, in many ways, flourished and progressed. Iran during the Sassanid period had a great influence on Roman culture. The influence of the Sasanians was not limited to the borders of Iran. Also, they affected to India, China, Western Europe, and Africa.
The Sasanians had an important role in the formation of European and Asian art in the Middle Ages. The major part of what is now known as the golden age of Islam in art, architecture, music and other fields was transferred from the Sasanians to the Islamic world. The Sassanid Empire ended in 651 AC after the death of Yazdgerd III, during the Arabs attack to Iran, and Iran was dominated by Muslim Arabs.