Iran After Islam
25 years war between Iran and Rome, (602-628), collapsed the political order, that dominated the area for three centuries. A Lack of power created, and as a result, Arab Muslim armies defeated the two empires. The war weakened both empires, and in that period, led to a domestic political crisis.
There were heavy taxes to finance the king’s militia. And also the empowerment of local rulers against the king severely weakened the Sasanians empire. The weakness and disability of the Sasanians were too great so that 12 kings arrived within 4 years. The Sassanid Empire weakened due to internal political problems, and could not resist against the Muslim armies attack. After the establishment of the Islamic caliphate, many changes created in the social, religious, and political fields in Iran.
For the first time after the Arabs attack, the Taherians, ruled in the eastern parts of Iran. In Safari’s period, for the first time, rulers used the Persian language instead of Arabic. In the period of the Samanids (999-819 AD), the new Persian handwrite created. And the Arabic alphabet used in the Persian language. During the reign of Khwarazmshahian (1077-1231), The Mongols attacked Iran. The result of this attack was pillaging the cities and mass murder of Iranian people.
From the Safavid period (1532-1732), Shi’a religion introduced as the official religion of Iran. The Shi’a religion, with its political and social characteristics, created unity and independence in Iran. And maintained its national identity against the invasions of the Ottoman Empire. Iran became a major political and religious power, once again. During the period of Shah Abbas Kabir, Isfahan selected as the capital city. And reached the peak of its majesty and magnificence. So that many memorials remain since that period, up to the present. The Safavids eliminated by an attack of Afghans and they captured Isfahan.
After Safavid up to now
Zandian (1796-1750) came to rule and during their reign, Shiraz was the capital city and became a magnificent and great city.
In the Qajar period (1797-1924), the influence of colonial powers, such as Britain and Czarist Russia developed in Iran. And the vast territories in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, and Khorasan (today Afghanistan) separated from Iran under their pressure in that time.
In 1925, Reza Khan came to power and announced the establishment of the Pahlavi Dynasty. During the Pahlavi era, the Iranian oil industry Nationalized, which led to some uprising and ultimately led to the 1979 Iranian Islamic Revolution.